Khan Bahadur Ahsanullah (R.)

Presentations of KMF

Knowledge Management Forum (KMF)
Date Palm (Saudi Khajur) Cultivation in Bangladesh

Dates are mentioned more than 20 times in the Qur’an and 50 times in the Bible. Date palms were one of the first plants cultivated by man. The first written records of date palms being grown and harvested are from about 5000 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia (current day Iraq) along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Dates have been cultivated since ancient times, probably as early as 6000 BC.

Saudi Arabia is the home land of the Date Palm Tree. With more than 10000 years of age it is one of the oldest trees in the world. Today, Saudi Arabia is the second largest producer of dates in the world. Saudi Arabian date fruit is well known for its deliciousness i.e. if the date is tasted once; a person will quickly become a date lover. Date palm counts for more than 3,000 varieties all around the world. Ajwa the king of dates. Ajwa is a soft dry variety of date fruit from Saudi Arabia.It is cultivated at Madinah Munawarah. The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. They can be easily grown from seed. Dates grow large, up to 120 feet and can live for 100 years.

The date thrives in sand, sandy loam, clay and other heavy soils. It needs good drainage and aeration. It is remarkably tolerant of alkali. A moderate degree of salinity is not harmful but excessive salt will stunt growth and lower the quality of the fruit.  The date palm must have full sun. It cannot live in the shade. Date palm growing requires temperatures above 20 degrees Fahrenheit to survive. Pollination takes place at 95 degrees and fruits need dry, hot temperatures with warm nights. Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and produce viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 to 10 years. Mature date palms can produce 68 to 176 kilograms of dates per harvest season.

Date palm is a staple food of Middle Eastern countries. Date is an edible, sweet dry fruit rich in minerals and vitamins. Date fruits assume great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients which include carbohydrates, salts and minerals, dietary fibre, vitamins, fatty acids, amino acids and protein.

Date palm (Phoenix spp) is important fruit for the people of Bangladesh, and historically has been associated with their religion, culture, rites, and rituals. Bangladesh has high varietal diversity of wild relatives of this species (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb). In Bangladesh, wild date palm is produced as a homestead crop; however, it grows naturally or is cultivated in fallow lands, around homesteads, farmland boundary and even in the marginal lands along the roads and canals. In the crop fields, the palm is found on the ails. These are food-cum-cash and also cottage industrial plants in Bangladesh. They are very popular and allowed to grow in Bangladesh mainly for fruit, its sweet sap and molasses.

Arabian Dates are much popular, and consumed in large quantity in Bangladesh are imported mostly from Arabian countries and Pakistan in exchange of huge foreign currency. Important traits such as tolerance to flooding, cold, high temperature, submergence, salinity, drought, diseases and insect resistance, having good eating qualities and above all, wider adaptability in land races are Bangladesh. Date palm cultivation started in Bangladesh from 2001. It is a dream come true when the desert fruit, Date palm was being cultivated in Bangladesh Mymensingh and Bogra. Dates are being cultivated in Bangladesh. Now it is going very profitable business in Bangladesh.


The 'Most Significant Change' (MSC) Technique

The most significant change (MSC) technique is a form of Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E) developed by Dr. Rick Davies in 1996. It is a technique without indicators, which helps to explore the unexpected changes (positive or negative) that may have happened as a result of program. The MSC process involves the collection of significant change stories emanating from the field level, and the systematic selection of the most significant of these stories by panels of designated staff or stakeholders. Once changes have been captured, various people sit down together, read the stories aloud and have regular and often in-depth discussions about the value of these reported changes. This change may be positive that inspires the organization or negative that helps the organization to find out the loopholes and take appropriate measures to overcome the problems. Outcomes of the story selection process and criteria for selecting stories are recorded and feedback to participants before to the next round of story collection begins. The stories are also accompanied by the reviewers’ interpretation about why the story was selected.

MSC is not meant to be used as a stand-alone. It is a supplementary technique.


Video On Presentation    

The world is gradually becoming urban. The world cities take up just two percent of the earth surface. According to UN projections, the urban population in Asia is expected to become nearly double and the percentage of the people living in urban areas in Bangladesh will be 41.4 against the currect figure of 28 percent.Over 44 million people or 28 percent of the country's population now live in the urban areas. The rate was only 15 percent in 1981 and 23 percent in 2001.
Rapid urbanisation of the Bangladesh's large cities in violation of the urban development principles is multiplying vulnerability to disasters. Unplanned growth of cities is increasing the risks of fire hazard, building collapse, water logging, drainage, congestion, trafik jam and road accidents.Relaxation in building code, provisions of detailed area plan (DAP) and building regulations is the key reason behind making the city more vulnerable.Most of the natural drainage systems of Dhaka are being illegally filled up by land owners and developer companies. As a result, rainwater becomes blocked causing water stagnation and flooding.

Referring to Khulna and Barisal divisions, where urban poverty has increased rapidly after the cyclones in 2007 and 2009, such natural disasters are pushing people from rural to urban areas. A Oxfam’s study in 2013 said “The poverty incidences in disaster-affected or adjacent urban areas increased than rural areas, but in non-affected areas, the urban poverty has reduced in last 5 years.” Migration from villages to cities contributes rapid urban growth in Bangladesh that poses serious threats to urban disaster since the cities are growing by violating urban development principles and standards. Such trend will go up. So, if we do not handle rural-urban migration in a planned way, vulnerabilities in the cities will be serious threats.

Vulnerability initiatives will also need to be integrated and linked to forecasting, prevention and mitigation of natural disasters. The presentation focusing on technical assistance and technology transfer, education and training for specific locations or types of risk, will go a long way to address specific needs and situations of local governments in cities of developing countries.


Child Protection: A Child Rights Perspective

Child protection is very evident that the Bangladesh like other developing countries can not provide basic rights of most of its people. In this context children are exposed to various kind of abuse as their parents can not ensure secured living place, company, education, food, clothes and above all security. These children especially of the poor segment often face various levels of abuse and exploitation ranging from mental harassment to rape. Even the children from well off families often fall victim to various kind of physical and mental harassment. It is alarming that not only in  family, also in  the institutional level  children are involved like school, social organization etc often fall victim to abuse. Increased awareness on rights of children helps to reveal such kind of abuse in institutional level.

The goal of child protection is to promote, protect and fulfill children’s rights to protection from abuse, neglect, violence discrimination and sexual exploitation, including trafficking as expressed in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and other human rights, humanitarian and refugee treaties and conventions, as well as national laws.

Child protection work aims to prevent, respond and resolve the abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence experienced by children in all settings. It is a specialist sector in its own right but of necessity works very closely with other sectors.

It requires a multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach (linking closely, for example, with work in education, health and criminal justice). Increasing the effective protection of children also involves working with a wide range of formal and informal bodies, including governments.


ICT in Education

Globally, the fast ever growing Information & Communication Technology (ICT) sector is opening newer development opportunities everyday & the use of ICT in and for education is now seen worldwide as both a necessity and an opportunity. Especially in Bangladesh, ICT is one of the most important inputs in improving the quality education both in formal & non formal education for the illiterates, neo-literates and enhances the capacity of literate to accelerate the velocity of national development. Integrating ICT into education system can increase the quality of education delivery.  Use of ICT in formal & non-formal education also offers the potential to facilitate greater access to information and services by marginalized group & community. Although awareness is raising in the country to utilization the potentiality of the technology in Bangladesh and to increase access to ICT, most of the people and students are yet to benefit from the opportunity ushered by ICT.   Therefore, it is a high priority to the use of ICT for more equitable and pluralistic development in education and consider catalytic role of ICT to attract people towards education, to strengthen learning outcome, reinforce maximum potential to increase diversification and flexibility of materials & contents.


The ICT in Education is an integrated strategy, where it can build national capacity to develop appropriate education policies and plans for the integration of ICT into education. It can also increase the capacity of teachers to utilize ICT to improve teaching and learning, can facilitating the use of ICT for developing and delivering educational content, in non-formal education support the use of ICT for bringing quality education.  Improving quality of education and training is a critical issue, particularly at a time of educational expansion. It is strongly believes that ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways: by increasing learner motivation and engagement by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by enhancing teacher training. ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used appropriately, can promote the shift to a learner-centered environment.

Motivating to learn: ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound, and colorful, moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process. Interactive video CD makes use of sound effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the students to listen and become involved in the lessons being delivered.

Enhancing teacher training: ICTs have also been used to improve access to and the quality of teachers training. For example, teacher development institutions like the Teacher Training Center (TTC) are taking advantage of the better teacher professional development opportunities. The government-funded TTC offers self-directed, self-paced Web-based courses for primary and secondary school teachers.

Creative Learning: ICT-supported learning promotes the manipulation of existing information and the creation of real-world products rather than the regurgitation of received information.

Integrative learning: ICT-enhanced learning promotes a thematic, integrative approach to teaching and learning. This approach eliminates the artificial separation between the different disciplines and between theory and practice that characterizes the traditional classroom approach.

Evaluative learning: ICT-enhanced learning is student-directed and diagnostic. Unlike static, text- or print-based educational technologies, ICT-enhanced learning recognizes that there are many different learning pathways and many different articulations of knowledge. ICTs allow learners to explore and discover rather than merely listen and remember.


Effectiveness, cost, equity, and sustainability are four broad intertwined issues which are considered for the overall impact of the use of ICTs in education. The educational effectiveness of ICTs depends on how they are used and for what purpose. And like any other educational tool or mode of educational delivery. Economic sustainability refers to the ability of a school and community to finance an ICT-enabled programme over the long term. Cost-effectiveness is key, as technology investments typically run high and in many cases divert funds from other equally pressing needs.


The Sharing Knowledge on Communication

From the mother’s womb to whole lifetime human being has to communicate continuously. Better communication means better life, in fact success of life mostly depend on effective and timely communication. So communication has a huge impact in our life and we should have skills for being a good communicator.
Communication: Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share"  is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, written, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information. So communication is-
1. The act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated.
2. The imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs.
3. Something imparted, interchanged, or transmitted.
4. A document or message imparting news, views, information, etc.
5. Passage, or an opportunity or means of passage, between places.
One definition of communication is “any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person’s information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.
Types of communication: Communication basically is of two types-Interpersonal communication and Mass communication. Besides,there are several types of communication such as  Animal communication, Environmental communication ,Human communication, Interpersonal communication, Military communication, Line of communication, Technical communication and Telecommunication etc.
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Message (what type of things are communicated), source / emisor / sender / encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through which medium), destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom), and Receiver.
Objectives of communication mainly as follows: To Aware, To Inform,        To Educate and To Motivate.      
Effective communication
Effective communication occurs when a desired effect is the result of intentional or unintentional information sharing, which is interpreted between multiple entities and acted on in a desired way. This effect also ensures that messages are not distorted during the communication process.
For effective communication we should have some skills such as Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, Questioning and Presentation.
Barriers to effective human communication
These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness.
This also includes a lack of expressing "knowledge-appropriate" communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient. Besides following reasons may have become the barriers of effective communication such as  Physiological barriers, System design, Attitudinal barriers, Ambiguity of words/phrases, Individual linguistic ability, Physical barriers etc.


A Demand Responsive, Gender Sensitive and Child Friendly Approach

WASH facilities in Schools and enrolment, attendance, retention and attention rates is widely known, access to safe and sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene facilities in schools is often poor or non-existent. In Bangladesh, although the access to water and sanitation facilities is higher than in many other countries, the conditions of many of the existing WASH facilities are poor, often due to overcrowding, inadequate maintenance of the facilities compounded by insufficient knowledge and acceptance of basic hygiene messages. The lack of access to safe and sanitary facilities affects all children, with girls of menstrual age being particularly affected, due to inadequate or often, a complete absence of private and clean sanitary facilities forcing the girls to miss school for up to one week each month.
A recent study on access to WASH facilities in secondary schools, supported by UNICEF/HRDC (May 2011), indicated that:

  • 84% of the schools have access to a drinking water source within the school compound however, 60% of these water sources were reported to be non-functional
  • 73% of the schools have separate latrines for boys and girls however, 59% of these facilities were found to be in poor sanitary condition and unusable - primarily attributable to a lack of, or inadequate, allocation of resources for regular cleaning and maintenance
  • 17% of the schools provided soap/detergent at, or near, the hand-washing point however, the practice of hand washing before eating and after latrine use was very low, estimated at 5.5% and 5.9% respectively.
  • 42% of the schools provided waste baskets
  • Hygiene and sanitation issues are not adequately covered in the curriculum
  • Almost no menstrual hygiene management facilities in schools

Field assessments show that teaching children the importance of hand washing and other good hygiene habits promotes increased knowledge and positive behaviour change, especially when the schools are equipped with an adequate number of safe latrines and sufficient water for washing (UNICEF Bangladesh, SSHE Program Evaluation, 2004). Investment in appropriate, effective and sustainable WASH facilities, and their maintenance, in schools is worthwhile for several reasons including:

  • Effective learning: education and health are inseparable: stunting, nutritional deficiencies, diarrhoeal infections affect school attendance, concentration, confidence and the learning capacity of children
  • Enrolment of girls: all children should have access to safe, clean, separate and private sanitation facilities in their schools and girls of menstrual age should have hygienic menstrual management facilities in schools
  • Child perspective: early childhood is an opportunity to develop hygiene related appropriate behaviour which will continue to adulthood
  • Implementing children’s rights: school children have a right to safe water and sanitation and a healthy learning environment in and around their schools.



A social pressure group built for a community based child protection mechanism
Community Score Card (CSC): A Social Accountability Tool

Community Score Card
A Social Accountability Tool

Community Score Card (CSC) is a participatory monitoring process used for local level monitoring and performance evaluation of services, projects and even government administrative units by the communities themselves. It enables citizens to participate and voice their opinion about the targeted public service providing institutions. It involves both the duty bearers and the right holders and facilitates increasing mutual understanding and cooperation between two parties and strengthens trust relationship between them.


Purpose of CSC : The CSC tools are used to identify and assess whether the local service providers deliver their services according to plans and targets giving highest benefits to the people. The process offers the service provider an opportunity to measure the level of satisfaction of his services to the beneficiaries. The process of service/facility assessment does not end at generation of the scores. The scores are further used to generate dialogue between the service/facility provider and the beneficiary community in order to seek improvement in service delivery where necessary.

Sustainable Management of Protected Areas to Combat Climate Change
In the face of changing climate protected areas bear significance not only in maintaining a balance in the eco-system but also in conserving bio-diversity and offering livelihood support to the people of the surrounding communities. Unfortunately, due to severe anthropogenic pressure most protected areas of Bangladesh are being severely degraded, some are facing near destruction.

The relationship between forests and climate change is intricate. On the one hand forests can mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon, while on the other they can contribute to climate change if they are degraded or destroyed. A total of 39 (Forest-19 & Wetland-20) protected areas (PAs) have been established in Bangladesh representing all the four forest types and wetland of the country. While all the PAs are managed by the state Forest Department (FD), Department of Fisheries (DoF) with a view to ensure sustainability, a recent approach of co-management has been initiated in PAs with an aid of development partners incorporating stakeholders' participation.

This presentation gives a review of the protected area, their past status, strategies adopted to protect and conserve these PAs, and the future direction.
Event Organization
Event has long played an important role in human society. Event management can be thought of as an art and application of the management practice to the creation and development of festivals, events, conferences and ceremonies etc. Event management involves studying and identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually launching the event. Post-event analysis and ensuring a return on investment have become significant drivers for the event.

Planning process is the key of event management. Event planning consists of coordinating every detail of events, from the speakers and event location to arranging for printed materials and audio-visual equipment. Event planning begins with determining the objective that the sponsoring organization wants to achieve, managing risk, and developing contingency plans also. Planners choose speakers, entertainment, and content, and arrange the program to present the organization's information in the most effective way. Event planners are responsible for selecting event sites, prospective attendees and how to get them to the respective event. Knowledge domain and functional unit has to be the driving force of the whole process.
C4D (Communication for Development)
C4D (Communication for Development) concept means that "people at the centre of the local and national development communication loop" and people-centred communication, utilizing old and new communication technologies. C4D is a platform for exchange of information, ideas, opinions and experiences, both inside and outside the development sector. So far communication is seldom seen as an integral part of development process, and that is the reason why development interventions hardly achieve societal goals. And the fate of the much hyped MDGs is sometime questionable, if communication is not included in the programme implementation.

C4D achieves its goal by taking up thematic action research, training and extension on communication and development. It works to link perspectives, concerns, voices of children, women, men from marginalized groups to upstream policy dialogue. Communication for Development is one of the most empowering ways of improving health, education, nutrition, sanitation and other key social outcomes in a society. It is a broad ranging concept based on key principles; these are evidence-based, participatory and right-based. It requires an enabling environment to make it effective. C4D can be seen as a cycle being a feature of each, and each developing for the other; from accessing tool for information delivery and production, to expression and voice and finally to networking and dialogue for policy change and societal impact.

The aims of C4D are to support interventions in health, nutrition, WASH, education and child protection through the promotion of life-saving, protective behaviours. It will create demand, the utilization of quality services and promote positive individual behaviours and collective social norms. It will support households to practice improved parenting skills and child friendly teaching, enhanced status and role of children, preventing early marriage, birth planning, hand-washing, protection from injury, disaster preparedness, and HIV/AIDS prevention. C4D will generate evidence to inform national policies.
Exclusion and Marginalization - Way forward to development planning
The fundamental human rights are supposed to be universal, inalienable and indivisible. According to UN declaration everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it is independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Concept of Marginalization and Exclusion: In reality discrimination and exclusion continues to violate human rights forcing an individual or a community to fall into a marginal position compared to the normative average. Marginalization process highly depends on three core aspects of policies and practice of a society or State. These are: Economic, Social and Political factors which contribute in the process of marginalization either separately or jointly. It is important to analyze marginalization and its interfaces with poverty, human rights, social justice and access to resource and information, democracy, rule of law and governance.

Marginalization is a slippery and multi-layered concept. Whole societies can be marginalized at the global level while classes and communities can be marginalized from the dominant social order. Similarly, ethnic groups, HIV and AIDS affected families or individuals can be marginalized within localities. To a certain extent, marginalization is a shifting phenomenon, linked to social status. People who are experiencing marginalization are likely to have tenuous involvement in the economy. Because social exclusion and poverty are widely considered to be closely related and overlapping. It is not unusual for people to combine, or move between, these various ways of getting money in their struggle for survival. Poverty, dependency, and feelings of shame are everyday aspects of economic dislocation and social marginalization. These experiences affect men and women differently and vary with age. Poverty and economic marginalization have both direct and indirect impacts on people's health.

Context of Bangladesh: There is no comprehensive study on social exclusion of the marginalized social groups in Bangladesh, and research on the extent of social exclusion, and in particular its outcomes, is limit. A large portion of the existing research focuses on women. Much of the remaining research focuses on ethnic /indigenous communities, who are concentrated in rural areas and special geographical corner and variably excluded from social, political, and economic arenas. These groups have experienced lack of recognition, fear and insecurity loss of cultural identity, and social oppression. Other excluded groups included Street Children, children and adolescent living in jail with and without mother Sex Workers, Persons with Disabilities, Children in Labor market, Elderly group, Urban-rural and cross-broader migrants, Trafficked survivors etc. Whilst it is widely cited that people living with HIV and AIDS are also excluded as a result of social stigma. The susceptibility of caste based minorities, occupational groups have their own history of struggle in Bangladesh and therefore, they belong to the "untouchable" class. People from pertinent risk behavior have identified as marginalized social group like Inject Drugs Users, Transgender, MSM etc. It seems that there are no specific studies on how these marginalized social groups experience social exclusion in Bangladesh.

Way Forward
  • Government to and other development actors should jointly developed a inclusive strategy which reflects on specific position and plan for marginalized social groups
  • Addressing marginalized peoples issues as corporate issues too
  • Children belongs to any marginalized social groups – deserves affirmative discrimination and attention
  • Design specific program for Indigenous people- dignity, equal citizenship and culture AND Integration with other program (land rights, women rights, child rights )
  • Adult and child education through CLC/CRC/Ganokendro – is the only light
  • Leadership development among the social groups ( more emphases on women and youth leadership programming )
  • Strengthen platform (women, children, youth and adolescent ) and mobilization
  • Life Skills for self esteem development and hand-on skill for livelihood promotion
  • Ensure meaningful access to government services through policy advocacy at local, national and international level.
Knowledge Management in Dhaka Ahsania Mission
An Unexplored Potential
Knowledge Management (KM) is a process of acquiring, creating and sharing knowledge which is most effective when linked with a cultural readiness and technology driven support structure. It is undeniable that intellectual capital of any organization is the most valuable asset which should be managed as effectively as physical assets in order to improve organizational performance and gain competitive advantage.

Dhaka Ahsania Mission started managing its intellectual assets by establishing a knowledge management forum in 2010. Every month on a certain date one staff member of DAM presents one topic, voluntarily chosen by the presenter followed by question-answers and discussion. Presentations then become available in the website of the forum for further use. After more than 2 years of implementation of a typical KM forum in DAM, it is now time to review the strategy, approach and process of KM for making this forum more effective. This presentation is not an analysis of the existing knowledge management forum of Dhaka Ahsania Mission, rather poses some reflective questions which might be helpful for further exploring the unexplored potentials.

To this consideration the presentation highlights knowledge as the new strategic imperatives of DAM and the only core competence for coping with challenge and upcoming changes. In the context of DAM this presentation also highlights the main category of knowledge i.e. Explicit Knowledge (knowledge that has been expressed into words and numbers) and Tacit Knowledge (Knowledge that we carry in our brain about how to do things…lessons learned through experiences). This presentation provides some examples on how far we can capitalize the potentials of Knowledge Management.

In the presentation Knowledge Management has been explained as an umbrella term e.g. comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and adoption of insights and experiences; also as the ability to acquire, record and access knowledge, for gaining competitive advantage. Considering the scope and coverage of knowledge management, DAM should emphasize and take appropriate measures to materialize essential aspects of knowledge management e.g. a) knowledge identification and creation, b) Knowledge sharing and enrichment c) Information storage, d) knowledge dissemination and use.

After more than 50 years of its operation DAM should explore its intellectual assets to gain competitive advantage by efficient use of the human knowledge that exists in DAM. There is an urgent necessity for DAM to discover and utilize the tacit knowledge of its employees which has been gained through a long process of trial and error and experimentation. This will facilitate DAM to optimize the use of its intellectual capital in addition to available explicit knowledge.

It is high time to identify the strengths and gaps in the current processes of KM in DAM to design appropriate technologies, operations and systems to stimulate knowledge sharing and use. It is likely to happen if we can review and redefine existing knowledge management vision, objectives and strategy, as per diverse needs and upcoming challenges of Dhaka Ahsania Mission.
Good Governance in NGO sector
The concept of "Governance" is not new. Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision.

The Governance in NGOs implies the totality of functions that are required to be carried out in relation to the internal functioning and external relations of organizations. The governance of NGOs focuses on the issues of policy and identity rather than on the issues of day-to-day implementation of the program. Governance requires the creation of structures and processes that enable an NGO to monitor performance and remain accountable to its stakeholders. In NGOs of Bangladesh, certain patterns of governance reoccur regularly. Statutory forms of governance provide the basic framework for these NGOs.

Three decades of growth in the NGO sector reached to a certain point where the issue of internal governance mechanism of NGO gained prominence. The rapid growth and diversification of the sector have also given rise to questions and concerns (Khan, 2003). Government is concerned about alleged NGO involvement in proscribed political activity and financial irregularities, a concern that led to a freeze on foreign funds of some NGOs as well as moves to tighten the regulations overseeing NGOs. Observers within and beyond the sector also acknowledge the weakness of the existing regulation overseeing NGOs. The NGO governance in Bangladesh is concentrated within three areas: i) accountability to the people (internal accountability); ii) accountability to government rules and regulations (external accountability); and iii) accountability to funding organizations (external accountability). The big question is how this accountability and transparency to be achieved.

The presentation on "Good Governance in NGO Sector" in the Knowledge Management Forum of August 2012 covers, discussion on key word of meaning and concept of "Good Governance", governance common definition, characteristics of good governance, good governance- tool for growth and welfare in global. Governance in the eyes of International donor, obstacles of good governance, constraints and challenges of NGOs in Bangladesh, NGOs accountability and transparency etc. In the last part of the presentation some recommendations and suggestions for implementation of "good governance" system in Bangladesh.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM Concepts:
Conceptually, TQM is, "Structured system for improving organizational performance by delighting customer through employee s participation".

Definition of TQM:
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an application of the systems approach in quality management wherein quality is viewed as a totality i.e. as a function of all the internal components of a system and its relationships to environmental phenomena.

Definition of System:
A system is an aggregate of interrelated components that work together towards a common goal.

Some Characteristics of Systems;
The characteristics of systems are hierarchic, Systems have environments, Systems may be open or closed & Systems have inputs, processing and outputs.

What are principles of TQM?
The principles of TQM are KAIZEN = Continual Improvement,PDCA Cycle, Speak with Facts & Data, Standardization, Prioritization, Visualization, Client-Oriented, Participation by all & Respect humanity.

What is KAIZEN?
KAIZEN is major component TQM. KAIZEN is a Japanese word meaning continuous improvement.KAI= Change & ZEN=Better/improved

What is PDCA?
KAIZEN is achieved through PDCA Cycle. The meaning are as follows; P-Plan, D-Do, C-Check, A-Act.

Steps of KAIZEN/Work Improvement Project (WIP):
The steps are Theme Selection, Visualize Gap between Current /Desired Situation, Analyze Causes, Propose Solutions/Compile Action Plan, Implement Solution and Confirm Effects, Standardization & Review.

Slow and steady wins the race: Starting small sets the pace.
Begin with an apparently trivial intervention, not requiring high level approval, not requiring money not available, requiring sincere efforts, requiring system developments, experiencing an improvement process, Satisfaction of accomplishment & One Year, One Project (OYOP) as a choice

What is 5S?
A great process and workplace improvement method, simply put 5S is five words that begin with the letter "S", Japanese terminologies & ach word/term connotes a very practical & important golden principle and Builds teamwork and discipline.

5S Terminologies;
The 5S terminologies are Seiri = Sort, Seiton = Set in Order, Seiso = Shine, Seiketsu = Standardize & Shitsuke = Sustain.

Benefits of 5 S.
The benefits of 5S are opens up floor space/counter space, eliminates time spent searching, organized workplace, safer work environment, reduces stress, impresses customers, reduces waste, better handle on costs & more pleasant place to work.
Findings of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) of Para Centres of ICDP, CHTDB-UNICEF
Facilitated FGD, an in-depth interview with the respondents such as PCMC members, parents and community people at the sampled 26 Para-centres under 21 Unions of 13 Upazilas in 3 CHT districts for knowing about functional status and routine activities of Para Centres in regards to pre-school, health & nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene promotion activities of the ICDP. The assessment pinpointed the major results achieved by the project which are described as follows:
  • developed physical infrastructure of 3,500 Para Centres and remote communities have organized under 111 UPs of 25 Upazials in 3 CHT districts except few under construction Para Centres;
  • increased capacity of Para Centres as community based institutions and strengthened through ensuring community participation in planning and implementation of integrated community development activities;
  • pre-schools' classroom activities by ensuring child-friendly appropriate activity based teaching-learning process greatly developed learners with higher attendance and thus promoting pre-school education to remote communities in CHT area and mainstreamed pre-school graduates to formal primary schools with few drop-outs;
  • Para Workers are developed up to certain level as role model of all activities of ICDP interventions;
  • developed Para Centre based nutritional and health care services in remote CHT area and implemented in 3,500 Para Centres and have been providing immunization, maternal and child care support services through health workers achieved satisfactory level;
  • communities have been using safe water, sanitary/pit latrines and hand washing with soap and hygienic practices in a promotional way; and
  • communities have good awareness on human rights of children and women, gender issues and women's empowerment.
The assessment identified some of the limitations and constraints of the Phase II of the ICDP and provided basis for extension of the project. ICDP activities have yet not reached all communities and should be extended to the remaining under-served and un-served communities of the CHT area. The rationale of the project including poverty, lack of support and services continuing in CHT remain valid. There is still much to do to meet the development objectives of the project to enable the Para Centres and communities of the CHT to pursue accelerated and sustained socio-economic development to reduce poverty and increase support services across the CHT area. Need to incorporate economic activities, livelihood skills development training, adult literacy and continuing education for human development, requires individual's savings and micro-credit program, employment creation and market sales promotion of skills based product in proposed ICDP interventions. It is expected that grassroots communities will take charge of their own development through Para Centres at the end of Phase III of ICDP and gradual phase-out of the project.
Diagnostic Teaching Techniques for active learning
In Bangladesh, one of the major components of quality education is reading, writing and critical thinking skills. The existing situation shows that due to lack of skills of the teachers on reading instructions they cannot attract the children in the classroom. The teachers do not use attractive and creative techniques to upgrade the children's knowledge and skills. And as a result children lose their interest in the textbook and majority of them drop out within the 5 years school cycle. The remedial measure of this situation is to develop capacity of the teachers on reading instruction and develop capacity to apply attractive teaching techniques to create literate environment through reading, writing and critical thinking.

Diagnostic Teaching Model (DTM) is an international model developed by the International Reading Association and using in different countries in the world.

DTM is a model for classroom literacy instruction in the primary grades. It is designed to improve students' ability to read, write, think critically, and to successfully complete other tasks effectively in language and content areas. The DTM is a flexible model that can be successfully used in any classroom context. It includes common strategies, tools, and processes for instruction and assessment, each of which can be adapted by individual teachers for use at any primary level and in any school environment.

Components of DTM
1. Phonemic Awareness
2. Phonics
3. Fluency
4. Vocabulary
5. Comprehension of connected text

Techniques of DTM
Diagnostic Teaching Techniques used Before, During and After teaching in the classroom. Using the techniques students can be fluent readers with comprehension, creative writers and critical thinkers in achieving lessons in the classroom. The most effective diagnostic teaching techniques are anticipation guide, cloze technique, every pupil response, word ladder, van diagram, event chain, spider map, vocabulary assessment, creative writing, reading theatre, increase vocabulary etc.
Bangladesh in Risk of Earthquake: What Can Be Done
The presentation is to be focused on earthquake concept, scientific causes of earthquake occurrence and risk & vulnerable situation of Bangladesh. It has been emphasized to identify the course of action considering the potential threat of earthquakes

Bangladesh is located close to the plate boundary between the northward moving Indian plate and the Eurasian plate, poses a major threat from large earthquakes. Historical records suggest that Bangladesh has experienced at least four major earthquakes of magnitude between 7 and 8, and one great earthquake of magnitude between 8 and 9, in the past 250 years. Although, earthquake in Bangladesh has not yet been recognized as a case of serious natural disaster, but recent occurrences and assumptions have already suspected as a potential threat.

Face of the earth is changing through geological processes, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics. Earthquake is the outcome of such geological processes. The occurrence of earthquakes in an earthquake prone region cannot be prevented. Rather, all that could be done is to make a prediction and issue a warning for minimizing loss of life and property. Bangladesh may not meet Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) standards and may be considered vulnerable from seismic safety viewpoint. Generally earthquake damages are irreparable. If we consider the potentiality of earthquake disaster, we may not be able to ignore this extraordinary geological hazard.

On the basis of the above facts, we should develop earthquake monitoring network in Bangladesh immediately. It is of prime importance to set a national institute of earthquake research to develop high skilled manpower that can perform the task for earthquake risk assessment and management. We should remember that one earthquake of moderate intensity would kill thousands of people and destroy enormous.
Poverty Sensitive Budgeting, Principles, Anecdotes and Way Forward
The presentation on 'Poverty Sensitive Budgeting' in the KMF of March 2012 covers discussion on certain principles of planning budget by making it gender responsive. Analysis has been made taking examples from the national budget and the Six Five Year Plan of Bangladesh, with particular reference to NSPAR. In course of discussion, poverty concerned public policies and budgeting system have also brought in the picture. In the later part of the presentation, civil society efforts to make the budget pro-poor have been discussed taking DAM & Steps as examples. The presentation is concluded bringing potentials for wider CSO participation in the budget dialogue as a way forward measure.
Adult Literacy & Education as tool for people's empowerment
The presentation is based on a research undertaken on the the effectiveness of Adult Literacy and Education (ALE) as an empowering tool for the people, particularly the poor and disadvantaged. The key point of research was to identify the elements of empowerment in ALE to generate conclusion how and to what extent ALE contributes to the empowerment of the poor people in overcoming poverty and improving their living conditions. Field study was made in two sites - PLCEHD 2 centres in Patuakhali and Ganokendra in Barguna.

The empirical evidence confirms the roles of ALE in improving health condition, economic empowerment and increased social participation of the people, particularly the poor. Efforts for improvement of the health condition of the poor population are made in many programmes through inclusion of contents and interactive discussion on those in the ALE process. Besides different health and nutrition issues in the curriculum, issues from wide-ranging areas of economic activities have been found in the text materials of the literacy programmes. ALE also found made significant contribution in bringing changes in the attitudes of the people, particularly the poor and the women in developing their level of confidence leading them to join in socio-political activities. Consequently they played vocal roles in demanding their rights and raising protest against injustice. They also played active role in promotion of peace through social harmony, management of programmes, participation in local government, etc.

The field findings advocates that effectiveness ALE become visible where it has been designed and delivered based on the needs and contexts of the adult and youth learners and where the learning process was interactive and joyful. Effective ALE was found planned and implemented with active community participation and partnership with local government and non-government organizations, which require to be institutionalized to develop a sustainable ALE implementation framework.
Use of ICT in Education
In recent years the world has been changed abruptly and dramatically by the grace of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). ICT has entered into every spheres of our daily life and is dominating the 21st century. In the history of civilization, no other technology has imparted so much influence of human society. ICT has not only changed our old world to a completely new one but also promises to play more dramatic role in the upcoming decades. ICT plays a great role to update the quality of life of the people by increasing the effectiveness of all sorts of socio-economic activities ranging form administration to industry, medicine, education and environment. ICT can contribute largely to achieve universal education globally through the delivery of education and training of teachers, improved professional skills, more facilities for lifelong learning and reaching the vast majority of people remaining outside the formal education process. The present paper aims at focusing how ICT can be used as an effective tool to achieve educational goals and can be used to supplement the learning process as a whole.
Climate Change Effect in Bangladesh
Corporate Social Responsibility
Digital Bangladesh: Target and Present Scenario
In recent years the world has been changed abruptly and dramatically by the grace of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). ICT has entered into every spheres of our daily life and is dominating the 21st century. In the history of civilization, no other technology has imparted so much influence on human society. ICT has not only changed our old world to a completely new one but also promises to play more dramatic role in the upcoming decades. ICT plays a great role to update the quality of life of the people by increasing the effectiveness of all sorts of socio-economic activities ranging from administration to industry, medicine, education and environment. Keeping this in mind the present government of Awami League declared to establish Digital Bangladesh within 2021 in its election manifesto launched on 12th December 2008 to mark the golden jubilee of the independence of Bangladesh. The aim of Digital Bangladesh is to expand and diversify the use of ICT to establish a transparent, responsive and accountable government to ensure cost-effective delivery of citizen-services to support the national goal of becoming a middle-income country within 10 years and join the ranks of the developed countries of the world within 30 years. This presentation describes the steps taken so far by the government in respect of infrastructure development, human resource development, legal and policy matters to fulfill its electoral pledge. At the end we will be able to get a conjectural if not conspicuous idea about our present status on the way to Digital Bangladesh comparing the commitment of the government and present scenario of the entire episode.
DMAIN OF LEARNING: Doorways to Improve Knowledge
Equivalence Education in Bangladesh
Psychosocial Support
Sector Wide Approach of Planning for Non Formal Education
SWAP is an approach which is commonly applied in the analysis of a country's sector for planning (agriculture, education, health, industry etc.) The approach allowing Development Partners (DPs) to work together in partnership with a government by pooling resources to support sub-sector-wide development in an integrated manner under the government's common policy framework. It requires good sector analysis, policy framework, and expenditure plan. Based on global experience, it is expected to be one of the best modalities when it is designed and implemented properly, as it should help increase efficiency in implementation by (a) avoiding duplicative and piecemeal efforts, thus increasing synergies in achieving outcomes; (b) increasing harmonization of DP and government implementation procedures, thus reducing transaction costs on both sides; and (c) encouraging the government and DPs to coordinate closely through special mechanisms for policy dialogue and fiduciary risk management led by the government, thus reducing transaction costs among DPs, since it helps reduce program monitoring costs. Experiences in some countries showed that SWAPs tended to have high transaction costs at the beginning, which became lower only after key priorities were identified jointly by DPs and the governments.

Process of planning
  • Select Sector/sub-sector (sectors are health, education, agriculture, industry, communication etc. and sub-sectors are (e.g. education sector) ECCE, primary, secondary, NFE, TVET and tertiary.
  • Education Sector Analysis
  • Analysis of Education policy
  • Preparation of education sector/sub-sector programme with in-built monitoring and evaluation indicators provision
  • Operationalization of education sector/sub-sector programme including resource (human and financial) mobilization
Social Rating of MFIs
The Science of Climate Change and its Consequences
Poverty, demography, health and the development of basic education in South-Asia. A critical analysis of selected data on human development.
Development Issues and Priorities of Indigenous People in CHT
Indigenous people of Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) have been living for centuries, divided in tribes, following their unique rituals, customs, cultural practices, languages and rules. The CHT has a total land area of about 13,294 square km. mostly hilly, only 3% of the total area constitutes plain land with a population of about 1.4 million of which 90% live in paras/small villages. CHT is very much isolated from the rest of the country and is poor/behind in all development indicators like education, health and nutrition, water and sanitation, income, employment opportunities, women empowerment, human rights, access to information etc. Poverty is pervasive, people in general, struggle for survival at bare subsistence level. In total there are 3 districts 25 upazilas, 111 unions, 379 mouzas and 4,426 paras in CHT. There are eleven indigenous language communities in the CHT e.g. Bawn/Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Khyang, Khumi, Lushei/ Lushai, Marma (Maghs), Mrus/Mro (Moorangs), Pangkhua/Pankhua, Tangchangya, Tipperas (Tipras) and Bengalese settled in the CHT.

The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region appears as a crucial political and development discourse among academicians, researchers, and politicians for its diversity and gravity in geography, population, displacement, and Bangalee settlement among others. The issues like ethnicity, displacement, migration, environment, socio-economic backwardness, insurgency, military operations, and consequently the unstable situation in the CHT. In December 1997, the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord was signed between the Government and Parbattya Chattagram Jana Sanghati Samity (PCJSS) which stopped two and a half decades of insurgency and military operations that claimed thousands of lives. After the implementation of the treaty, focus is on the improvement in livelihood of these marginalized and deprived people, especially the indigenous peoples (IPs) got a new dimension with development initiatives taken by the Government, and development partners. Peoples of CHT previously left out due to remoteness and lack of access, and disconnected from education, health, income generation system etc.

The development priorities in CHT are specially community capacity building, education, health and nutrition, infrastructure and communication, water and sanitation, women empowerment, human rights, environment and climate change, awareness education on various development issues, livelihood skills training and market linkage development, access to information, etc. Need to increase emphasis on agriculture, food security, confidence building between and among the communities, and sustainable community based socio-economic and cultural development. In this regard, technical and financial assistance needed from multi-donor agencies, UN agencies, government, NGOs, civil societies and corporate sector to accelerate development process and overcome the above-mentioned situation gradually. Some UN Agencies, Government, and NGOs have been involved in implementing development projects in CHT from 1991. Needed more development partners' involvement in CHT to accelerate progress and ensure sustainable development.
Contribution of Microfinance in Rural Poverty Reduction
Microfinance, once hailed as the best way to tackle poverty, is under attack'! The paradox is that the discussions on the downturn start in South Asia where microfinance began and has flourished since the 1970s. In the next DAM Knowledge Forum, scheduled for September 28, 2011 a short presentation will be followed by open discussion regarding the concept, approaches and contribution of Microfinance.

The presentation will follow the Concept of Microfinance, discuss a number of models of service delivery within the microfinance industry and these have varied impacts on poor people. The presentations will also share the key criticism against MFI including whether microfinance reaches the "poorest of the poor". The presentation will also share the evidences on the existing studies on the impact of microfinance on the poor including the "Consumption Borrowers" and the poverty reduction as a whole.

The presentation will also highlight regarding the interest rates on loans are too high for poor people to pay (SKS charged 24-25 % p.a and Grameen Bank about 22% p.a. until recently). While the rates in South Asia may sound quite high they are Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America where rates of 50% to 120% APR are common. Examine whether the interest rates are 'too high' or are very much 'market' set.

Turning the question around, we should also ask 'what's right about microfinance'? Most obviously MFls increase the choices that millions of near-poor and poor people have to basic financial services — loans, savings and (increasingly) insurance. This can help them manage their finances more effectively, as long as they do not borrow excessively.

The social benefits of MFI activities. South Asia's MFls have focused on female clients, and many organize women into loan groups or village organizations. There is strong evidence that MEl group members have higher levels of contraceptive use (Schuler and Hashemi, 1994) than non-members (because they have improved information and choice) and much anecdotal evidence that joining an MEl leads to women being more physically mobile and being permitted to visit more public spaces by their husbands.

In conclusion, the way forward, for the MFI have been suggested such as to be cautious about setting interest rate ceilings on micro-loans as, if these are set too low, this will kill off MFIs and reduce the financial service choices available to near-poor and poor people. MFIs need combinations of different financial products which would play a key role and provides a diversified portfolio of coping mechanism for individuals and finally Microfinance is one small part of a national strategy for poverty reduction — we need to get it into perspective and keep it working effectively.
Time Management
Time Management is a set of related common-sense skills that help you to use your time in the most effective and productive way possible.

By using Time Management skills you can learn to:
  • Determine which of the things you do are important, and which can be dropped
  • Use your time in the most effective way possible
  • Increase the time in which you can work
  • Control the distractions that waste your time and break your flow
  • Increase your effectiveness and reduce stress
Many people spend their days in a frenzy of activity, but achieve very little because they are not concentrating on the right things.

Despite the benefits of time management, many people do not use it. This can be because:
  • they don't know about it
  • they are too lazy to plan
  • they enjoy the adrenaline buzz of meeting tight deadlines
  • they enjoy crisis management
The problem with crisis management and tight deadlines is that while they can be fun, often they can lead to high levels of stress, a disrupted private life, tiredness and, occasionally, to failure of projects.

The tools that can help in time management:
  • The Activity Log
  • Delegation
  • SWOT
  • Reading Skills
  • Writing Skills
  • Phone Skills
  • Prioritized To Do
  • Time Auditing
The private sector as potential partners in creating and sustaining literate environment
The social accountability and obligation of private agencies for community development and literacy are being increasingly realized. It is their response to the rights and entitlements of their workforce. It is also an opportunity for local resources mobilization which has not yet been optimally utilized/or remain under-utilized As a result of sensitization campaign the private and corporate sectors have started extending assistance and offering sponsorship in supporting schools, CLCs, literacy & education activities, trade unions, workers well fare, workers family well fare, child and mother care etc.

NGOs as the private sector actors have a very rich implementation experiences, curriculum and materials development, evidences of good practices, trained and experienced work forces, acceptance with community and local institutions and CBOs. This partnership shall mean mutually learning the context, playing proactive role, establish agreed MOU and extend supports in the form of financial and technical assistance and learning lessons from each others through the implementation process

The partnership may be developed between a group of target beneficiaries of a particular area or CBOs and the individual or a consortium of private sector agencies & NGOs.

Therefore, building professional partnership with private sector actors like NGOs and the corporate bodies for sharing resources, knowledge and practices to meet the challenges in sustaining literate environment around millions of illiterate or half literate may be potential areas to explore.
Presentation on Positive Thinking, Cognitive Behaviour andDevelopment